(Primary Sjogren's Syndrome; Secondary Sjogren's Syndrome)
- Primary Sjogren's syndrome—occurs alone
- Secondary Sjogren's syndrome—occurs with other rheumatic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis , scleroderma , or systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus)
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- Viral infections
- Sex: female
- Age: 40-60 years old
- Other rheumatic or autoimmune diseases
- Red, burning, itching, and/or dry eyes
- Dry mouth
- Difficulty swallowing
- Loss of taste and smell
- Dry skin, nose, throat, and/or lungs
- Swollen salivary glands
- Severe dental cavities caused by dry mouth
- Oral yeast infections
- Vaginal dryness
- Skin rashes
- Joint and muscle pain
- Blood vessels
- The nervous system
- Organs such as the lungs, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and thyroid
- Blood tests—including rheumatoid factor and other tests used to detect and monitor autoimmune diseases
- Chest x-ray —a test that uses radiation to take a picture of structures inside the body, in this case the lungs
- Lip biopsy —removal of a sample of lip tissue to look for inflammation in the accessory salivary glands located there
- Schirmer test—placement of small pieces of paper between the lower eyelid and eyeball to see how much moisture is being produced
- Slit-lamp examination—a detailed exam of the eye with an adjustable light
- Urine test—to check kidney function
- Artificial tears, artificial saliva, and vaginal lubricants
- Pilocarpine —ocular and oral dryness
- Cevimeline —requires less frequent dosing than pilocarpine, may cause nausea
- Aspirin or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
- Plaquenil —antimalarial drug with anti-inflammatory properties
- Methotrexate —a steroid-sparing agent
- Mild exercise can help relieve stiffness in the joints.
- To help relieve dry mouth, sip liquids often and suck on sugar-free candies.
- Brush, floss, and see your dentist regularly. This can help to prevent cavities.
- Use nonscented moisturizers to help relieve dry skin.
American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association http://www.aarda.org/
Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation http://www.sjogrens.org/
Alberta Health and Wellness http://www.health.alberta.ca/
Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/
Arthritis Foundation website. Available at: http://www.arthritis.org/ .
The Cleveland Clinic Foundation website. Available at: http://www.clevelandclinic.org/ .
Fox RI. Sjogren’s syndrome. Lancet. 2005;366:321-331.
Kassan SS, Montsopolous HM. Clinical manifestations of Sjogren’s disease. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164:1275-1284.
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/ .
Papas, et al. Successful treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in Sjogren's syndrome patients with oral pilocarpine: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-adjustment study. J Clin Rheumatol . 2004;10:169-177.
Pertovaara M, Korpela M, Uusitalo H, et al. Clinical follow up study of 87 patients with sicca symptoms (dryness of eyes or mouth, or both). Ann Rheum Dis. 1999; 58:423.
Ramos-Casals M, Tzioufas AG, Font J. Primary Sjögren's syndrome: new clinical and therapeutic concepts. Ann Rheum Dis. 2005; 64:347.
Sjogren's Syndrome Foundation website. Available at: http://www.sjogrens.org .
University of Washington Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine website. Available at: http://www.orthop.washington.edu/ .
Venables PJ. Management of patients presenting with Sjogren's syndrome. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol . 2006;20:791-807.
- Reviewer: Rosalyn Carson-DeWitt, MD
- Review Date: 12/2011 -
- Update Date: 12/30/2011 -