|Inflamed Bronchial Tube|
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- Family history
- Tendency to develop allergies
- Respiratory infections
- Contact with allergens when immune system is developing
- Exercise—especially in cold air
- Tobacco smoke
Substances that cause allergies (allergens)
- Food—peanuts, milk, wheat, eggs, and tree nuts are common
- Animal hair
- Respiratory infection
- Abrupt change in weather
- Shortness of breath
- Trouble breathing
- Chest tightness
- Child complains of chest pain or odd sensations
- Difficulty during feeding in infants
- Trouble sleeping
- Child avoids exercise or sports
- Spirometry test—test that measures how well your child breaths; your child will be asked to take deep breaths and then exhale into a tube that is hooked to a machine
- Challenge test—test that uses spirometry to measure how well your child breaths after causing asthma symptoms
- Pulse oximetry—test that uses a sensor on a finger to measure oxygen concentration
- Medication—in young children unable to undergo spirometry testing, the doctor may prescribe a bronchodilator medication (drug that opens airways); if your child’s symptoms get better then the doctor may diagnose asthma
- X-ray —test that uses radiation to form an image; chest x-ray used to rule out infection and disease
- Skin testing —test that introduces very small amounts of common allergens into the skin; used to identify common allergens that may trigger asthma symptoms
- Know what your child is allergic to and avoid known triggers. These may include certain foods, pollen, and air pollution.
- Avoid having your child be exposed to tobacco smoke.
- Have proper heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in your home.
Quick relief medications—These are also sometimes called rescue medications and are used to quickly treat breathing difficulties. Common inhalers include:
- Inhaled corticosteroids
- Systemic corticosteroids
- Long-acting beta agonist—in most cases, prescribed with an inhaled corticosteroid
- Leukotriene modifiers such as montelukast (Singulair) and zafirlukast (Accolate)
- Cromolyn or nedocromil
- Zileuton (Zyflo), a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor
- Combination medications that include a long-acting bronchodilator and an inhaled corticosteroid
Allergy Shots (Immunotherapy)
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology http://www.aaaai.org/
Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America http://www.aafa.org/
Asthma Society for Asthma http://www.asthma.ca/
Canadian Lung Association http://www.lung.ca/
Asthma in children: complications. DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 23, 2012. Accessed May 4, 2012.
Asthma in children: other management. DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 23, 2012. Accessed May 4, 2012.
Asthma information for patients and parents. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1flu/asthma.htm . Updated September 15, 2009. Accessed September 18, 2009.
Asthma, steps in diagnosis. Mayo Clinic website. Available at: http://www.mayoclinic.com/print/asthma/AS00003/METHOD=print . Accessed November 12, 2008.
The diagnosis is asthma, now what? American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology website. Available at: http://www.aaaai.org/patients/allergic%5Fconditions/pediatric%5Fasthma/diagnosis%5Fasthma.stm . Accessed November 12, 2008.
Lifestyle changes to manage asthma. Health Library website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/healthLibrary/ . Updated September 1, 2011. Accessed May 4, 2012.
SW Stoloff. The current and future state of asthma treatment. Clinical Cornerstone: The Current and Future State of Asthma Treatment. 2008; 8(4):26-43.
What causes asthma? National Heart Lung and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma%5FCauses.html . Accessed November 12, 2008.
What is asthma? How can you tell if your child has it? American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology website. Available at: http://www.aaaai.org/patients/allergic%5Fconditions/pediatric%5Fasthma/what%5Fis%5Fasthma.stm . Accessed November 12, 2008.
10/9/2009 DynaMed Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Mireku N, Wang Y, Ager J, Reddy R, Baptist A. Changes in weather and the effects on pediatric asthma exacerbations. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;(3):220.
10/30/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php : Bernard A, Nickmilder M, Voisin C, Sardella A. Impact of chlorinated swimming pool attendance on the respiratory health of adolescents. Pediatrics. 2009;124(4):1110-1118.
8/23/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Beasley R, Clayton T, Crane J, et al. Acetaminophen use and risk of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema in adolescents: ISAAC phase three. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Aug 13 early online.
10/8/2010 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Ducharme F, Chroinin M, Greenstone I, Lasserson T. Addition of long-acting beta2-agonists to inhaled corticosteroids versus same dose inhaled corticosteroids for chronic asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(5):CD005535.
5/4/2012 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Woodfine L, Neal RD, Bruce N, et al. Enhancing ventilation in homes of children with asthma: pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Br J Gen Pract. 2011;61(592):e724-732.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/93/2012 -