(PCS; Persistent PCS)
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- Microscopic brain damage from a mild brain injury
- Psychological or emotional stress that results from a mild brain injury
- Balance problems
- Vision problems
- Being very sensitive to noise and/or light
- Mood swings—a quick change in mood (eg, being happy to becoming very sad)
- Becoming easily irritated or annoyed for little or no reason
- Trouble remembering things
- Trouble concentrating or paying attention
- Trouble sleeping
- Feeling tired all the time
- Your personal and family medical history
- Your head injury
- Sleep habits
- Recent missed work or school
- Recent memory or relationship problems
- Recent emotional problems, such as irritability, anxiety , and depression
- Memory and attention tests—to assess your memory and attention abilities
- CT scan —a type of x-ray that uses a computer to make pictures of structures inside the head; to look for signs of persistent injury and/or to see if surgery may improve the symptoms
- MRI scan —a test that uses magnetic waves to make pictures of structures inside the head; to look for signs of persistent injury and/or to see if surgery may improve the symptoms
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)—A test which evaluates the electrical activity of the brain.
- Over-the-counter medications to reduce the severity of headaches
- Antidepressants to help reduce depression and anxiety
- Nerve blocks to relieve severe, nerve-injury induced pain/headaches
- Talking with a mental health professional about the problems you are having related to PCS
- Learning how to cope with those problems in your life
- Learning skills and training to start or resume a career
Brain Injury Association of America National Help Line: 800-444-6443 http://www.biausa.org/
US Centers for Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov/index.htm/
Canadian Psychiatric Association http://www.cpa-apc.org/
Ontario Brain Injury Association http://www.obia.on.ca/
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- Reviewer: Rimas Lukas, MD
- Review Date: 09/2012 -
- Update Date: 00/92/2012 -