Portsmouth Regional Hospital - December 10, 2018

From painful headaches to body aches to lack of energy, coming down with influenza (AKA the flu) is no fun at all. But when it strikes some people, the virus can be more dangerous—even life-threatening. Find out who's at highest risk for an adverse flu reaction and learn when symptoms may warrant emergency care.

Facts on the flu

The flu is a viral infection, like a cold, but flu symptoms will come on suddenly and can lead to bacterial pneumonia, dehydration, and worsening of chronic medical conditions. Learning the facts about flu can help you and your loved ones stay healthy all season long.

People most at risk


Because of their weaker immune systems, children under the age of five—and even more so under age two—are especially vulnerable to the flu. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that, each year, as many as 26,000 children younger than five may be hospitalized for flu-related complications.

Pregnant women

Pregnant women are at higher risk of severe flu, due to changes in their immune system, heart, and lungs during pregnancy. This sensitivity lasts for up to two weeks after giving birth. The flu can even cause problems with the pregnancy, like premature delivery.

Adults 65 and older

As people get older, their flu-fighting immune systems become frail. The CDC estimates that between 70 and 85 percent of seasonal flu-related deaths occur in seniors over age 65.

Those with medical conditions

The flu weakens your body and can exacerbate an already existing health problem, which is why people with certain conditions may have a harder time coping with the virus. The most common condition affected by flu is diabetes. Infections like the flu make it harder to control blood sugar but many other conditions may worsen from the virus, including:

  • Asthma
  • Diabetes
  • Neurological conditions
  • Chronic lung disease
  • Heart disease
  • Liver and kidney disorders
  • Blood disorders
  • Weakened immune systems due to disease or medications
  • Severe obesity

These conditions make people more susceptible to flu complications, like pneumonia, and having the flu can make these other health problems worse. If you begin to experience flu-like symptoms and have any of these medical conditions, talk to your doctor so you can take the proper precautions.

When emergency care may be necessary

A normal case of the flu usually comes on suddenly and lasts anywhere from one to two weeks. People may have a fever or chills, cough, sore throat, headaches, fatigue, and muscle aches.

For those who may be more susceptible to the virus, however, more serious complications may occur, such as pneumonia, sinus or ear infections, bronchitis, and seizures.

So, contact your doctor immediately if you or a loved one experiences any of these warning signs during a bout with the flu:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Severe or persistent vomiting
  • Chest or belly pain
  • Sudden dizziness
  • Confusion
  • Symptoms that get better, then return with fever and worse cough
  • Severe dehydration

In infants and children, watch for trouble breathing, a high fever with a rash, trouble urinating, lack of tears when crying, or skin that is bluish in color.

Your best bet at prevention

The CDC recommends everyone six months and older receive a flu vaccination each year. Research shows that vaccination typically reduces flu risk by 40 to 60 percent. It also makes the illness less severe and protects against these dangerous complications. And don't think it's ever too late – or too early – for a vaccine. While flu outbreaks usually peak between December and February, flu cases can occur as late as May and as early as October.

If you have dangerous flu symptoms, don’t wait to get emergency care.